Why African Founders Sometimes Crash and Burn

Lets explore the underlying reasons behind the occasional failures of African startups despite the continent's burgeoning entrepreneurial ecosystem.

4 min read
In recent years, the African startup ecosystem has witnessed unprecedented growth and development. As of 2022, venture capital funding soared to a historic $6.5 billion, with the continent proudly hosting five unicorns—startups valued at over a billion dollars each—and recording 26 tech acquisitions within the span of a year. This surge underscores the vibrant dynamism of Africa's entrepreneurial landscape.

Having spent my entire life on this continent, I've had firsthand experience of the entrepreneurial spirit that thrives here. It's a relentless drive to innovate and solve pressing problems, often against a backdrop of formidable challenges. For many founders, the journey from initial idea to sustainable enterprise is a complex blend of hustle, creativity, and a quest for personal and societal transformation. However, despite the allure of success stories, the reality is sobering: a significant number of African startups fail prematurely. In 2023 alone, over 15 tech startups closed shop after collectively raising more than $200 million—a stark reminder of the obstacles that confront aspiring entrepreneurs in Africa.

Drawing parallels to a gazelle encountering an unforeseen ravine, even the most prepared African founders can face sudden and unexpected setbacks. In this article, I explore three critical layers of concerns that often lurk beneath the surface of building startups in Africa—challenges that can transform promising opportunities into devastating failures.

Defining Purpose and Identifying Real Problems

At the core of any startup's mission is the pursuit of solving real problems at scale—a mission that often necessitates securing venture capital to accelerate growth. However, amidst the ease afforded by technology for aspiring founders to launch new ventures, there lies a critical juncture often overlooked: identifying and addressing genuine, tangible problems.

In today's tech-driven world, it's become increasingly effortless to utilize APIs like Paystack, slap on a UI, and introduce yet another "Neo-bank for X" or remittance solution into the market. Yet, success hinges not merely on technological prowess, but on the ability to discern real, pertinent challenges. Distinguishing between actual, everyday obstacles and fanciful, impractical ideas is pivotal. Frequently, the problems deemed "real" may not align with the lofty expectations of 20X VC returns, causing many potential founders and investors to look the other way.

For me, the true litmus test of an "African" problem lies in its Serviceable Obtainable Market (SOM)—a market segment that accounts for the unique complexities and opportunities inherent across the continent. It's about addressing issues that resonate deeply within local communities and possess the potential to sustain viable solutions. For instance, while Nigeria boasts an impressive 87% mobile penetration rate, 64% of these users still rely on non-smartphone devices—highlighting a nuanced market reality that cannot be overlooked.

Navigating the Trenches: The Importance of Experience and Grit

Anecdotes of founders claiming multi-startup experience may sound impressive initially, but the reality often reveals a different story. Many of these ventures never see the light of day or falter within the first month—a testament to the unpredictable nature of entrepreneurial pursuits. Successfully navigating these challenges demands more than theoretical knowledge; it requires hands-on experience and resilience forged through the harsh realities of business development.

The journey through the trenches of entrepreneurship can be categorized into two pivotal components:

Hands-on Experience: Founders deeply involved in day-to-day operations—spanning sales, marketing, product development, customer service, and resource management—gain invaluable insights. Direct engagement with these facets of business equips entrepreneurs with the acumen needed to make informed decisions and pivot when necessary.

Developing Grit: Beyond operational skills, founders who weather the storms of startup life develop a tenacious resolve. They learn to overcome obstacles creatively, cultivate resilience in the face of adversity, and sustain momentum even amid daunting challenges. This firsthand experience fosters empathy and camaraderie within their teams, contributing to a cohesive and resilient organizational culture.

Understanding these dynamics is crucial for any founder aiming to chart a path to profitability or a successful exit strategy. Amidst the allure of flashy UI designs and trendy branding, the ability to leverage growth levers effectively when crises arise becomes paramount.

The Role of Venture Capital: Myth vs. Reality

While securing venture capital funding is often portrayed as a hallmark of success, the reality for many African founders can be disappointing. Funding, while vital for scaling operations, does not eliminate the fundamental groundwork required for sustainable growth. It acts as fuel for the journey, but the founder's vision, adaptability, and market acumen serve as the engines propelling long-term success.

Focusing exclusively on securing VC funding can obscure the more critical imperative: building sustainable, impactful solutions that resonate with paying customers. The fluctuating macroeconomic environment, such as Nigeria's FX challenges, underscores the need for businesses to be agile and responsive to local economic nuances.

Ultimately, the success of African startups hinges on their capacity to innovate authentically, solve tangible problems, and cultivate resilience amidst adversity. While funding remains a valuable resource, it should not overshadow the fundamental principles of business viability and market relevance.


In conclusion, the journey of building sustainable startups in Africa demands a sober assessment of challenges, a commitment to solving real problems with ingenuity, and a relentless pursuit of authenticity. Beyond the glamour of fundraising rounds and media accolades, true validation emerges from delivering meaningful solutions that resonate within local markets.

To all founders navigating this path, remember: Success requires more than a polished pitch deck; it demands unwavering dedication, adaptability, and a deep understanding of your market's intricacies. With these qualities and a steadfast focus on delivering value, African startups can chart a course towards lasting impact—regardless of their access to external funding.

Here's to reshaping the narrative, one innovative solution at a time.

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